Artichokes are bathed in olive oil, white wine, red-pepper-flakes, garlic, and fresh herbs and braised until tender in this classic Roman dish.
Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Halve lemon and squeeze juice into a large bowl of cold water; add squeezed lemon halves to bowl. Working with 1 artichoke at a time, peel tough outer leaves and trim 1 inch from top. Trim fibrous green skin from heart and stem. Halve each artichoke lengthwise, scrape fuzzy choke from heart with a spoon, and transfer to lemon water.
Drain artichokes and place, cut side up, in a wide, shallow ovenproof pot. Pour wine, oil, and water over artichokes and sprinkle with salt, red-pepper flakes, garlic, and herbs. Bring to a boil over high heat. Cover, transfer to oven, and braise until artichokes are tender, about 45 minutes. Drizzle with oil, sprinkle with red-pepper flakes, and serve with pan juices.