This dish can be made a day ahead. Let cool completely before refrigerating. Reheat, covered, over medium heat.
Cook bacon in a large pot over medium heat, stirring occasionally, until fat renders and bacon is crisp, about 8 minutes. Add onion, and cook, stirring occasionally, until translucent, about 3 minutes. Add cabbage, vinegar, wine, water, sugar, and 1 1/2 teaspoons salt; stir to combine. Raise heat to medium-high, cover, and cook 5 minutes.
Reduce heat to medium-low, and continue to cook, covered, stirring occasionally, 30 minutes. Stir apple into cabbage, and cook, covered, until cabbage and apples are tender, 25 to 35 minutes. Season with pepper.