The elements can be arranged on a platter for a composed salad or tossed together in a bowl for a traditional one.
Make the broccoli: Preheat oven to 450 degrees. Toss broccoli with oil, and season with salt and pepper. Spread on a rimmed baking sheet, and roast until broccoli begins to soften and brown, about 15 minutes.
Make the chickpeas: Heat oil in a small saucepan over medium heat. Add shallot, and cook, stirring until translucent, 5 minutes. Stir in chickpeas, and season with salt. Cook for 1 minute. Add vinegar, and cook until liquid has evaporated, about 1 minute.
Make the goat cheese puree: Combine all ingredients in a food processor, and puree until smooth, scraping down sides once. Puree can be refrigerated for up to 1 day.
Make the vinaigrette: In a small bowl, whisk together mustard, vinegar, honey, and salt. Pour in oil in a slow, steady stream, whisking constantly until emulsified.
To assemble: Toss broccoli with 2 tablespoons vinaigrette, and toss romaine with 2 tablespoons vinaigrette. Arrange on a platter with chickpeas and walnuts. Serve with puree and additional vinaigrette on the side.