Prosciutto -- air-dried Italian ham -- has a sweet, salty taste and a pleasant aroma. Its texture is dense and silky, the result of being pressed during curing. Figs and prosciutto are a classic pairing.
In a small bowl, whisk vinegar and oil; season with salt and pepper. Reserve at least 1 tablespoon dressing (for drizzling); set aside. Place arugula in a large bowl; toss with remaining dressing.
Divide arugula among four serving plates. Dividing evenly, top with bocconcini, prosciutto, and figs; drizzle all with reserved dressing.