A bold herb paste rubbed under the skin lends allover flavor to this classic roasted chicken.
Combine herb leaves and garlic with a mortar and pestle or in a food processor, pouring in oil in a slow, steady stream. Stir in zest; season with pepper.
Place chicken on a cutting board. Tuck wing tips under. Season cavity with salt and pepper. Place lemon halves and herb stems in cavity. Make two 1 1/2-inch slits in each leg and thigh. Loosen skin from breasts with your fingers. Rub paste all over chicken, into slits and under skin. Tie legs with kitchen twine. Refrigerate chicken, covered, at least 3 hours or overnight.
Preheat oven to 450 degrees. Let chicken stand at room temperature 30 minutes. Heat a large cast-iron skillet or roasting pan in oven 15 minutes. Season chicken with salt and pepper. Carefully place it in the skillet in the oven, breast side down. Roast 15 minutes. Turn chicken onto its side; roast 10 minutes. Turn onto other side; roast 10 minutes. Turn chicken onto its back; roast until golden brown and juices run clear or until an instant-read thermometer inserted into the thickest part of the thigh registers 175 degrees. about 20 minutes.
Lift chicken so that juices run into skillet; transfer chicken to a platter. Cover chicken loosely with foil; set aside. Pour off fat from skillet, leaving juices; discard fat. Heat juices over medium-high heat. Slowly add wine, stirring to loosen the browned bits. Bring to a boil. Cook until reduced by half, about 4 minutes. Serve chicken with the pan sauce.