This super-quick riff on an Italian comfort food takes the favorite familiar flavors of the soup pasta e fagioli and turns them into a cheesy pasta with escarole and chickpeas.
Cook pasta in a large pot of salted boiling water according to package instructions. Reserve 1/2 cup pasta water, then drain. Meanwhile, finely chop onion, and tear pale inner leaves of escarole to yield 4 cups (reserving the rest for another use).
Heat oil in a large straight-sided skillet over medium-high. Add onion and garlic, season with salt and pepper, and cook, stirring, until onion is translucent, about 3 minutes. Add tomato paste; cook 1 minute. Add beans and their liquid, broth, and 1/4 cup pasta water (or a bit more, if you prefer your pasta creamier); simmer until slightly reduced, 3 to 4 minutes.
Stir in pasta, cheese, and 3 cups escarole; season to taste. Drizzle remaining 1 cup escarole with oil; season to taste. Serve pasta topped with dressed escarole, drizzled with oil and sprinkled with more cheese.