These are the essentials for creating the flavors of Indian cuisine.

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Indian Spices on Tray
Credit: Jake Stangel

Indian food calls for variety, but "don't overwhelm yourself by buying 30 spices," says Madhur Jaffrey, the doyenne of Indian cuisine. "Start with the most common ones." These are her favorites. We consider them the starting point for exploring Indian cooking.

Dried Red Chiles

Similar to dried Italian red pepperoncini, the most common Indian dried red chiles range from medium-hot to hot. Jaffrey notes that they're milder when used whole. Dried chiles are used in a wide range of Indian recipes from dals to vegetable dishes.

Cinnamon Sticks

While Americans consider cinnamon a spice for desserts, in India cinnamon sticks are used to season savory meat and rice dishes.

Fenugreek Seeds

Fenugreek seeds have an earthy, slightly bitter taste that's especially well suited to eggplant and potato. Jaffrey uses this spice in her recipe for dakshini murgh, a southern Indian-style chicken dish.

Cayenne Pepper

Cayenne pepper is a spicy red pepper powder made from ground dried Indian red chiles. It's also used in Cajun and Creole cooking.

Coriander Seeds

Jaffrey recommends buying aromatic coriander seeds rather than pre-ground coriander: Grind the seeds at home, then store the powder in a tightly closed container and use within a month.

Cumin Seeds

Roasting brings out the nutty, perfumed flavor of cumin seeds; the spice is a common ingredient in many curries. Jaffrey uses it in a simple potato dish, til ke aloo.

Cardamom

Look for green cardamom pods, they are more aromatic than the bleached whitish cardamom pods. If a recipe calls for cardamom seeds, split open the pods and extract the seeds.

Brown Mustard Seeds

Indians use black or brown mustard seeds, but the yellow variety that's available in American grocery stores is a fine substitute.

Ground Turmeric

Bright ground turmeric powder is derived from a root in the ginger family, adds color to many dishes from dals to rice. Be careful: It stains clothes easily.

Asafetida

Extracted from the rhizome of the Ferula plant, asafetida adds a distinctive garlicky, truffle-like flavor kick to dals and other lentil dishes. Jaffrey uses it in her version of the green bean dish, sem ki sabzi.

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