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The 10 Basic Spices for Indian Cooking, According to Madhur Jaffrey

These are the essentials for creating the flavors of Indian cuisine.

indian spices unlabeled
Photography by: Jake Stangel

Indian food calls for variety, but "don't overwhelm yourself by buying 30 spices," says Madhur Jaffrey, the doyenne of Indian cuisine. "Start with the most common ones." These are her favorites. We consider them the starting point for exploring Indian cooking.

 

Related: Madhur Jaffrey's Easy, Healthy Indian Recipes 

 

Dried Red Chiles

Similar to dried Italian red pepperoncini, the most common Indian dried red chiles range from medium-hot to hot. Jaffrey notes that they're milder when used whole. Dried chiles are used in a wide range of Indian recipes from dals to vegetable dishes.

 

Cinnamon Sticks

While Americans consider cinnamon a spice for desserts, in India cinnamon sticks are used to season savory meat and rice dishes.

 

Fenugreek Seeds 

Fenugreek seeds have an earthy, slightly bitter taste that's especially well suited to eggplant and potato. Jaffrey uses this spice in her recipe for dakshini murgh, a southern Indian-style chicken dish.

 

Cayenne Pepper 

Cayenne pepper is a spicy red pepper powder made from ground dried Indian red chiles. It's also used in Cajun and Creole cooking.

 

Coriander Seeds 

Jaffrey recommends buying aromatic coriander seeds rather than pre-ground coriander: Grind the seeds at home, then store the powder in a tightly closed container and use within a month.

 

Related: 25 Easy Indian Recipes That Make Delicious Weeknight Dinners, from Curry to Tandoori

 

Cumin Seeds 

Roasting brings out the nutty, perfumed flavor of cumin seeds; the spice is a common ingredient in many curries. Jaffrey uses it in a simple potato dish, til ke aloo.

 

Cardamom 

Look for green cardamom pods, they are more aromatic than the bleached whitish cardamom pods. If a recipe calls for cardamom seeds, split open the pods and extract the seeds.

 

Brown Mustard Seeds 

Indians use black or brown mustard seeds, but the yellow variety that's available in American grocery stores is a fine substitute.

 

Ground Turmeric  

Bright ground turmeric powder is derived from a root in the ginger family, adds color to many dishes from dals to rice. Be careful: It stains clothes easily.

 

Asafetida

Extracted from the rhizome of the Ferula plant, asafetida adds a distinctive garlicky, truffle-like flavor kick to dals and other lentil dishes. Jaffrey uses it in her version of the green bean dish, sem ki sabzi