Popular in the Midwest -- especially Ohio, the Buckeye State -- this peanut butter cup-like treat is made to resemble (and named after!) the nut of the buckeye tree.
Sift sugar into a large bowl; set aside. Combine butter, cream, peanut butter, vanilla, and a pinch of salt in a saucepan over medium heat. Cook, stirring, until butter and peanut butter are just melted. Pour over sugar in bowl and whisk until smooth. Transfer to an 8-inch square baking dish and smooth surface. Place parchment or plastic wrap directly on surface of mixture and refrigerate until set, about 2 hours.
Roll scant tablespoons of peanut-butter mixture into 1-inch balls. Refrigerate for 30 minutes. In a bowl set over a saucepan of simmering water, melt chocolate, stirring until smooth; remove from heat. Working with 1 ball at a time, insert a toothpick into the center of the ball and dip into the chocolate 3/4 of the way up the ball, letting excess chocolate drip off. Transfer to parchment-lined baking sheets. Refrigerate until set, about 30 minutes. Gently press holes left by the toothpick to smooth. Buckeyes can be made 1 week ahead and stored in a single layer, covered, in refrigerator.