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Mushroom Glossary: Get to Know All the Delicious Varieties

From ordinary to exotic, these nine mushrooms boost the flavor of any dish.

assorted mushroom varieties
Photography by: Envision/Getty Images
Clockwise from top left: 1. Chanterelle 2. Portobello 3. Morel 4. Shiitake 5. Maitake 6. Porcini 7. Enoki 8. Cremini 9. Oyster

Gone are the days when the only kind of fungi you could find at the market was the white button mushroom. There are now all kinds of mushrooms, both wild and cultivated, widely available. Getting to know the character of different mushrooms is like wine tasting. Besides varying drastically in shape and texture, each one has an aroma, flavor, and intensity of its own. Familiarity with what makes one type of mushroom distinct from another will guide your choices as you experiment with them in your cooking. Here’s a closer look at the top fungi among us.

 

1. Chanterelle

Notoriously difficult to cultivate, this golden-hued variety is usually foraged in the wild. It has a delicate, nutty flavor and a firm, somewhat chewy texture. Chanterelles are wonderful simply sauteed -- use them to gild omelets, toasts, and even tacos.

 

Get Our Chanterelle Recipes

 

2. Portobello

Portobellos have roundish, dark-brown caps that can grow up to 6 inches in diameter. A prime source of potassium, the mushrooms offer more of this nutrient than bananas ounce for ounce. The caps’ dense, meaty texture not only stands up well to stuffing, but it also makes them a great burger substitute on the grill.

 

3. Morel

Cone-shaped, spongy morels mainly grow wild in the spring, generally not through cultivation. The darker the mushroom, the more intense the flavor. Dried morels are available year-round and have an even stronger wallop than fresh. Try sauteing fresh morels with seasonal vegetables such as asparagus, peas, or fava beans and serving over pasta.

 

Get Our Morel Recipes

 

4. Shiitake

The shaggy-capped, umbrella-shaped shiitake grows on fallen logs of the oak trees (shii in Japanese) from which it gets its name. Sought out for their smoky, woodsy flavor, these mushrooms are delicious roasted or stir-fried and are particularly suited to Asian dishes.

 

Get Our Shiitake Recipes

 

5. Maitake

Rich, earthy maitakes are one of the most treasured mushrooms of autumn. Also called “hen of the woods” because of their resemblance to the fowl’s tail, they have a ruffled shape and grow in big brown clusters at the base of hardwood trees. Their firm texture holds up well to soups and stews. They can also be sauteed and used to crown polenta squares or tucked into a savory bread pudding.

 

6. Porcini

Available fresh in the late spring and fall, these wild mushrooms are prized for their aromatic flavor and smooth texture, especially in Italy and France (where they're known as cepes). They're delicious served raw over salads or cooked and served atop risotto.

 

7. Enoki

Delicate, threadlike enoki are usually imported in vacuum-packed bags: Choose firm, ivory-colored bunches. They're wonderful raw in salads, and Japanese soups such as miso soup are often served with a sprinkling of these mushrooms. But our latest, greatest way to eat enokis? Wrapped in bacon, threaded onto skewers, and grilled, brushed with homemade teriyaki sauce.

 

8. Cremini

Also sold as "baby bellas," creminis are young portobellos that resemble button mushrooms but are darker in color and have a fuller flavor. Try them every which way -- sauteed, roasted, grilled, stewed, you name it.

 

9. Oyster

These pale, fan-shaped mushrooms grow in the wild and through cultivation on tree trunks and rotted stumps. Their peppery flavor mellows with cooking -- try them seared or roasted.

 

Get Our Oyster Mushroom Recipes

 

 

Watch our Kitchen Conundrums expert Thomas Joseph demonstrate how to get perfectly golden sauteed mushrooms every time (using any variety you like!):