If you can't find Bucheron, any other ripened goat cheese will work -- even thin slices from a goat-cheese log. And we like to use the dip leftovers over scrambled eggs or a frittata.
Preheat oven to 425 degrees. In a food processor, pulse 1/4 cup almonds with garlic until finely ground. Add bread, peppers, oil, and vinegar; puree until smooth. Season with salt and pepper.
Transfer mixture to a 1-quart baking dish. Top with cheese. Bake until bubbly, 15 minutes. Top with remaining 1/4 cup almonds; serve immediately.
This dip can be assembled up to 8 hours ahead and stored, covered, in the refrigerator. When it's time to cook, remove the plastic and add 5 to 10 minutes to the baking time.