Sauteing the onions adds sweetness and an extra layer of richness to this chicken dish, and stirring in the chutney towards the end of cooking keeps the flavors bright and fresh.
Heat a large skillet over medium-high. Add oil and onions; cook, stirring occasionally, until browned, about 8 minutes. Transfer to a 5-to-6-quart slow cooker. Season chicken with salt and pepper; stir into slow cooker with ginger, garlic, and jalapeno. Cover and cook on high 2 hours.
In a food processor, pulse cilantro, peanuts, brown sugar, and juice until finely chopped; add to slow cooker. Cover and cook 30 minutes. Season with salt and pepper. Serve over rice, with yogurt, jalapeno, cilantro, chopped peanuts, and lime wedges.