Unlike most tarts, which tend to be thin, this one has a generous layer of filling. It should be made in a tart ring 1 3/4 inches deep to create a beautiful, uniform edge. You can buy a ring online or at specialty-cookware stores.
For the crust: Pulse flour, salt, and sugar in a food processor until combined. Add butter, and pulse until mixture resembles coarse crumbs with a few large pieces remaining. With the machine running, add the ice water in a slow stream, and process until dough just holds together. (Dough should not be sticky.)
Turn dough onto a lightly floured work surface, and shape into a disk. Wrap in plastic, and refrigerate for at least 30 minutes (or overnight). Dough can be frozen for up to 1 month; thaw overnight in the refrigerator.
For the topping: Combine flour, oats, sugar, cinnamon, and salt in a bowl. Cut in butter with a pastry blender or your fingers until large clumps form. Refrigerate, uncovered, for at least 15 minutes (or covered for up to 2 weeks).
Preheat oven to 350 degrees. On a lightly floured work surface, roll out dough to a 14-inch round, about 1/8 inch thick. Transfer to a 9-by-1 3/4-inch tart ring set on a parchment-lined baking sheet, pressing crust onto sheet and up sides of mold. Trim excess flush with rim. (Alternatively, press dough into bottom and up sides of a 9-inch springform pan. Using a knife, trim sides to be 1 3/4 inches high.) Freeze dough, uncovered, for 15 minutes.
Cut a 13-inch round of parchment, and place on top of crust. Fill with pie weights or dried beans. Bake until the edges are just golden, about 30 minutes. Remove weights and parchment, and bake until golden, 10 to 15 minutes. Let crust cool completely on sheet on a wire rack.
For the filling: Using the tip of a paring knife, scrape seeds from vanilla bean into a medium bowl, reserving the pod for another use. Add the remaining filling ingredients, and stir until combined. Spread on cooled crust, and sprinkle the chilled topping evenly over the filling.
Bake until topping is crisp and filling is bubbling, about 1 hour. Let cool on a wire rack for 30 minutes. Carefully remove tart ring, and let cool completely on sheet. Transfer to a serving plate.