Whenever possible, buy vacuum-packed cooked lentils (available in many supermarkets); if using the canned variety, be sure to drain and thoroughly rinse the lentils before using.
Pulse together avocado, garlic, shallot, lemon juice, oil, and 1 teaspoon salt in a blender or food processor until smooth. Toss two-thirds of dressing with kale in a bowl. Divide mixture among 4 serving bowls along with lentils, cheddar, almonds, sprouts, and lemon wedges. Serve, with remaining dressing on the side.