1 cup (2 sticks) unsalted butter, room temperature
1 cup packed light-brown sugar
1/2 cup granulated sugar
2 large eggs
1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract
1 cup caramels, such as Kraft (about 20), halved
1 cup roughly chopped assorted miniature chocolate candy bars, such as Mr. Goodbar (about 16)
3/4 cup small button-shaped chocolate candies, such as m&m's, for decorating
Preheat oven to 350 degrees, with racks in upper and middle thirds. In a large bowl, whisk together flour, salt, and baking soda. In a large bowl, using an electric mixer, beat butter and sugars on high until pale and fluffy, about 3 minutes. Beat in eggs, scraping down bowl as needed. With mixer on low, beat in flour mixture in three additions until combined. Beat in vanilla. Fold in caramels and candy bars.
Using a 1/3-cup spring-loaded scoop, drop dough, 2 inches apart, on parchment-lined baking sheets. Bake 8 minutes. Remove from oven; immediately press candies onto cookies, then rotate sheets and bake until golden around edges and set in centers, about 8 minutes. Transfer cookies to wire racks to cool.