Preheat oven to 375 degrees. In a saucepan, melt butter over medium. Add celery and onion; cook until translucent, 5 minutes. Stir in flour and cook 1 minute. Increase heat and slowly stir in broth. Bring to a boil, stirring, and cook until liquid thickens, 1 minute. Remove from heat. Stir in chicken and 1/2 cup artichokes; season with salt and pepper. Mix breadcrumbs with marinade; season with salt and pepper.
Spread 1/2 cup chicken mixture in a 2-quart baking dish. Top with 2 noodles and 1 1/2 cups chicken mixture; repeat. Top with remaining 2 noodles, chicken mixture, and 1 cup artichokes, then scatter breadcrumbs on top. Bake until top is deep golden brown, 30 minutes. Let cool 10 minutes.