Preheat oven to 250 degrees.
Heat olive oil in a large Dutch oven over medium-high heat for 2 minutes. Working in batches as necessary, add shanks, rosemary, salt, and pepper; brown shanks on all sides, 15 to 20 minutes per batch. Using tongs, transfer shanks to a large plate and set aside.
Add bay leaves, chiles, and cinnamon stick to Dutch oven; cook until chiles begin to brown, about 1 minute. Reduce heat to low; add garlic and cook, stirring, until crisp, 2 to 3 minutes. Increase heat to medium-high and stir in onions, shallots, and Herbes de Hebron; cook, stirring, until onions are dark brown and crisp, 15 to 20 minutes. If onions begin to stick or darken too quickly, add a little water and scrape up from bottom of pan to prevent burning.
Add wine to Dutch oven and cook until onions become plump and jammy, about 5 minutes. Stir in lentils and cook until they begin to stick to Dutch oven, 2 to 3 minutes. Return shanks to Dutch oven and stir to combine. Add about 6 cups water, or just enough to cover shanks. Bring to a boil and immediately remove from heat. Cover and transfer to oven. Cook until meat easily pulls off bone, about 2 1/2 hours.
Transfer Dutch oven to stovetop and carefully transfer shanks to a serving platter; season shanks with salt and pepper and loosely cover with parchment paper-lined aluminum foil and set aside. Bring lentils and cooking liquid to a simmer over medium-high heat; cook until liquid is reduced, 3 to 5 minutes. Season lentils with salt and pepper and serve over shanks.