Using a chef's knife, cut the kernels from the corn into a medium bowl; you should have about 3 cups. Using the dull side of the knife, scrape the milk and pulp from the cobs into the bowl. Add egg yolk, flour, sugar, salt, and pepper. Stir to combine.
In a clean bowl, whisk egg whites until stiff but not dry. Fold into corn mixture. Heat 2 tablespoons vegetable oil in a large cast-iron or nonstick skillet over medium-high heat.
Drop spoonfuls of batter into the oil, spaced a few inches apart. Cook until golden on the bottom, 1 to 2 minutes. Using a spatula, turn fritter over, and cook until golden on the other side. Repeat the process with the rest of the batter, using the remaining oil for pan. Serve immediately.