Whisk together 1/4 cup plus 2 tablespoons sugar, the yolks, wine, lemon juice, and 1/4 teaspoon salt in a medium saucepan over medium-high heat. Simmer, stirring, until thick, 3 to 5 minutes.
Strain through a fine sieve into a bowl. Stir in grated zest. Gradually whisk in butter until smooth. Press plastic wrap directly onto surface of curd. Refrigerate until set, about 1 hour or up to 2 days.
Preheat oven to 425 degrees. Toss fruit with remaining 1/4 cup sugar. Roast fruit on 2 rimmed baking sheets, rotating their positions halfway through, until caramelized and juicy, 15 to 17 minutes. Transfer to a bowl, with juices. Let cool slightly.
Whisk cream until soft peaks form. Whisk curd to loosen. Working in 3 additions, fold whipped cream into curd.
Layer a third of the cake in the bottom of a 12-cup bowl. Cover with a third of the lemon mousse. Spoon a third of the roasted fruit over lemon mousse. Repeat twice with remaining cake, lemon mousse, and fruit. Refrigerate trifle at least 2 hours or up to 1 day. Garnish with lemon zest.