Make the madeleines: Beat eggs, granulated sugar, and vanilla with a mixer on medium speed until frothy, about 4 minutes. Whisk together flours, cocoa powder, baking powder, ground espresso, and salt.
Fold flour mixture into egg mixture in 2 additions using a rubber spatula. Fold in melted butter until incorporated. Refrigerate overnight.
Preheat oven to 375 degrees. Butter madeleine tins, and dust with cocoa powder, tapping out excess. Refrigerate prepared tins until ready to use.
Fill each mold with 1 heaping tablespoon batter. Bake until a cake tester inserted into centers comes out clean, 7 to 8 minutes. Immediately turn out madeleines onto a wire rack.
Make the glaze: Whisk together confectioners' sugar and brewed espresso. Stir in ground espresso.
Once cooled, dip half of each madeleine into glaze at an angle; let excess drip off. (Glaze should be opaque when covering madeleines. If too thick, add more brewed espresso. If too thin, add more confectioners' sugar.) Transfer to parchment paper, and let dry until glaze is set, about 30 minutes.
Glazed madeleines can be stored at room temperature for up to 2 days.