Preheat oven to 450 degrees, with racks in upper and lower thirds. Place chicken, cabbage, thyme, and half the cauliflower on a rimmed baking sheet and place remaining cauliflower on another sheet. Drizzle each with 1 tablespoon oil and season with salt and pepper. Place sheet with chicken on top rack and cauliflower on bottom. Cook until cauliflower is tender, 20 minutes, stirring twice.
Remove both sheets from oven. Let sheet of cauliflower cool, then transfer cauliflower to an airtight container and reserve for Friday. Add apples to sheet with chicken and remaining cauliflower and return to oven. Cook until chicken is cooked through and apples are tender, about 20 minutes, stirring twice. Serve immediately.