Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Butter and flour 6 jumbo muffin tins (each 1-cup capacity); set aside.
In a food processor, blend 1/2 cup sliced almonds with sugar until finely ground. Add butter, eggs, vanilla, and salt; process until combined, scraping down sides of bowl as necessary (mixture may appear curdled at this point). Add flour and cornmeal; pulse just until moistened.
Divide batter evenly among prepared muffin tins; sprinkle with remaining 1/4 cup sliced almonds. Bake until golden and a toothpick inserted in centers comes out clean, 20 to 25 minutes. Cool cakes 5 minutes in pan; remove from pan, and transfer to a rack to cool completely.
Hull and quarter strawberries. In a medium bowl, combine with 1/3 cup sugar. Let stand until syrupy, tossing occasionally, at least 20 minutes (and up to 6 hours, covered and refrigerated).
In another medium bowl, using an electric mixer, whip cream with remaining 1 tablespoon sugar until soft peaks form.
With a serrated knife, split cooled shortcakes horizontally. Place bottom halves on serving plates. Dividing evenly, layer with sweetened strawberries and whipped cream; cover with shortcake tops.