In a small skillet over medium heat, toast pine nuts, stirring often, until golden, 2 to 3 minutes.
In a large pot of boiling salted water, cook fettuccine until al dente, according to package instructions, adding asparagus during last 5 minutes of cooking. Reserve 1 cup of pasta water; drain.
Return pasta, asparagus, and reserved pasta water to the pot. Toss with goat cheese, mustard, dill, and toasted pine nuts. Season with coarse salt and ground pepper.