Preheat oven to 400 degrees. Toast anise seeds in a skillet over medium heat, shaking occasionally, until fragrant, 3 to 5 minutes. Cool 3 minutes. Crush lightly with a mortar and pestle or the side of a chef's knife.
Trim phyllo sheets into 12-by-10-inch rectangles. Lay 1 rectangle on a baking sheet (keep remaining pieces covered with a damp kitchen towel), and brush lightly with butter, coating entire surface. Sprinkle with 1 teaspoon sugar and 1/4 teaspoon anise seeds, and top with another phyllo sheet. Repeat 5 times.
Arrange Pluot slices on phyllo in five rows of five, spacing each row about 1/2 inch apart. Sprinkle with remaining 2 teaspoons sugar, and brush Pluot slices with remaining butter.
Bake until crisp and golden brown, 15 to 17 minutes. Using a spatula, transfer to a wire rack to cool slightly. Cut into squares, and serve.