Heat 1 tablespoon oil in a medium skillet over medium heat. Add onion, red pepper, and garlic. Cook, stirring frequently, until soft and onions are translucent, about 8 minutes. Add cumin, turmeric, and ketchup. Cook for 1 minute.
In the bowl of a food processor, combine onion mixture, beans, and rice. Process until well combined. Transfer to a large bowl. Add breadcrumbs, and mix well. Season with salt, pepper, and hot pepper sauce.
Heat 2 tablespoons oil over medium-high heat in a large nonstick skillet. Drop 1/4-cup balls of bean mixture into skillet. Flatten into 3-inch patties. Cook until golden brown, 3 to 5 minutes per side. Repeat process with remaining 2 tablespoons oil and bean mixture. Serve immediately with ketchup, if desired.