Of the many household tasks, doing the laundry seems to be a no-brainer: Put clothes in the washer, add detergent, and press start. But regular washing can take a toll on your garments. Here's how to prevent white shirts from turning gray, sort your bright clothing (hint: you need more than one pile), undo the damage when colors run, and perform many other tricks that will keep your clothes and linens in near-original condition.
How to Keep Whites White
The main reason white items turn gray or become dull is incorrect sorting. People generally have few all-white loads, so they tend to mix whites with colored garments. Unfortunately, some types of fabric, notably cotton, aren't colorfast, so their dye molecules wind up in the wash water and settle on other fabrics, noticeably on white and other light ones. Washing heavily soiled items, such as athletic socks, with lightly soiled ones, such as sheets, can also lead to dinginess. Unless you add enough detergent to hold the dirt in suspension, it will end up back on the very articles you intended to clean. Water quality, too, can affect how your whites emerge from the washer. Iron-laden water and hard water (rich in calcium and magnesium) can render detergents less effective and cause staining.
What to Do
Wash whites separately. The best way to retain whiteness is to launder white items together in the hottest water the fabric will tolerate (water that is at least 120 degrees is most effective at removing soil). Choose detergent with a bleach alternative and/or enzymes, using the maximum amount recommended.
Add a laundry booster. You can increase the cleaning power of a detergent by adding a booster, such as borax, oxygen bleach, or washing soda to help maintain whiteness. Before washing, soak heavily soiled items using an enzyme detergent (available in the laundry aisle of many supermarkets) or oxygen bleach, and launder them separately.
Pretreat body-oil marks. To remove perspiration and other greasy stains, pretreat with liquid detergent, dishwashing liquid, or shampoo (use colorless ones to avoid dye transfer). Gently rub the liquid into the fabric using a clean toothbrush or complexion brush.
Tackle colored stains. Address food spills, such as coffee or juice, and underarm yellowing, which is residue from antiperspirant or deodorant, by applying undiluted liquid oxygen bleach directly to the fabric immediately before laundering.
Use a color remover. Once a month or when your whites become dull, wash them with a color remover (available in the laundry aisle of many supermarkets). Alternatively, soak items in boiling water and oxygen bleach in a basin (this is suitable only for fabrics that won't shrink). You may have to experiment to determine which technique whitens best.
Accept less than perfect. Even with meticulous sorting, don't expect whites to stay fluorescent bright forever. When white fabrics are manufactured, they are often treated with optical brighteners, which are chemicals that boost whiteness. They will eventually wash out and cannot be replaced.
Minerals and water: If your water has a high iron content (look for reddish stains in the shower and toilet), launder with an iron-removing product (available in the laundry aisle of many supermarkets). Don't use chlorine bleach: Combined with iron and hot water, it can yellow clothing. Instead, use oxygen bleach, which is a more effective (and more environmentally friendly) alternative. For hard water (evidenced by rough, hard-to-clean deposits on bathroom fixtures), some detergent labels call for using larger amounts. If your water is particularly hard, you may not be able to get whites pristine unless you install a water softener, which removes minerals.
How to Keep Darks Dark
During the wash cycle, articles of clothing collide with one another and the washer's interior, which causes some of the fibers in the fabric to break, exposing the raw fiber ends. This friction disrupts the surface of the fabric, tricking the eye into seeing less color. Tumble drying can cause similar damage, though to a lesser extent. Also, washing darks in warm or hot water can hasten dye loss. With some fabrics, expect a certain amount of fading; theres no such thing, for instance, as truly colorfast cotton.
What to Do
Wash darks separately. To help preserve dark items' original colors and prevent bleeding onto lighter clothes, wash darks together using the cold-water cycle (60 to 80 degrees).
Use the shortest cycle. Select the appropriate setting depending on how soiled the clothes are and what fabric they're made of. As far as detergents go, experts say that they don't really contribute to fading. While some formulas are designed specifically for darks, any liquid detergent without a bleach alternative is suitable (liquids work better in cold water; powders may not dissolve fully).
Minimize abrasion. Prepare your clothes for the washer by closing zippers, fastening hooks, and turning items inside out. Also, wash items of similar weight together -- that is, don't wash a cashmere sweater and jeans in the same load just because they're dark blue.
Line-dry darks. Whenever possible, hang dark items to dry (out of direct sunlight); this helps maintain their original appearance. When you do use the dryer, opt for the lowest temperature suitable for the material, and be careful not to overdry your clothes. Remove them from the machine as soon as they're dry or even while they're slightly damp; this will help keep shrinkage to a minimum.
Washing in winter: Although cold water helps prevent dark clothing from fading, frigid outdoor temperatures may cause the washer's water temperature to fall below 40 degrees, rendering even detergents designed to work in cold water ineffective. If you live in an area with particularly chilly winters, don't use the cold-water wash setting during that time of year. Instead, select a warm-water wash and a cold rinse.
How to Keep Brights Bright
As with darks, wear and tear in the washer and dryer as well as warm and hot water can cause colors to fade. Deep, bright garments often shed a little dye over time, so some color loss is inevitable.
Separate by color intensity. Launder colored items in two groups: brights and pastels. Wash brand-new brights on their own for the first few cycles, when they're most likely to bleed significant amounts of dye.
Turn items inside out. Keep brights looking good longer by reversing them before washing. Choose the shortest cycle appropriate for the soil level and fabric.
When colors run: Forget soaking your bright fabrics in salt or vinegar to forestall bleeding; it won't help. If brights do bleed onto other clothing in the wash, don't put the stained items in the dryer. The heat will set the dye, making any discoloration permanent. Instead, launder the clothes again separately. As long as you don't apply heat, the dye should come out, even if you don't rewash the items immediately.