There are two reasons for marinating food: to impart flavor and to aid in tenderizing. Marinades lend a distinctive ethnic or regional character to meat, poultry, and fish. A classic French marinade might have herbs and garlic; a savory Thai version might include coconut milk, cilantro, and fresh ginger. You can use marinades to enhance the flavors of cheeses, tofu, and fresh vegetables. In this cooking lesson, Martha discusses reasons for marinating food and tells you how to make delicious dishes using creative marinades.
Acid is a basic ingredient found in marinades; it usually helps tenderize the food you are marinating. Acids commonly used in marinades include: balsamic vinegar, rice-wine vinegar, red wine and white wine, citrus (lemon, lime and orange juice).
Oil and Moistening Agents
Oil or another moistening agent will help prevent sticking. Useful oil and moistening agents include: olive oil, vegetable oil, yogurt, coconut milk, hoisin sauce.
Seasonings impart flavors to the food you are marinating. Light, fresh seasonings include: fresh herbs, parsley, cilantro, rosemary, bay leaves, tarragon, and more garlic. For heartier, more intense flavors, use whole spices, such as peppercorns, juniper berries, coriander, dried and fresh chiles or fresh ginger.
What to Marinate and for How Long
Never marinate food at room temperature for more than one hour.
Suggested marinating times for various foods include:
Steak: 6 to 24 hours
Chicken, lamb and pork: 6 to 24 hours
Thick and fatty fish fillets: 1 hour
Thin and flaky fish fillets: 30 minutes
Shellfish: 20 minutes
Cheese, tofu, and vegetables: 30 minutes
Additional Marinating Tips
Do not use the marinade as a sauce unless you cook it first. Marinades are well-suited to the grill, but be careful of possible flare-ups. Use a resealable bag or shallow baking dish to contain the marinade for easy clean up.
Recipes for Marinades
Test your skill with the lessons you learned in Martha's Cooking Class on how to marinate; try these four delicious recipes. Each uses a different marinade, but all are based on the essentials: an acid component, distinctive herbs, and a specific length of time. Plus, experiment with other herbs and spices to give added excitement to your marinades; you'll be surprised at the flavor sensations that different combinations yield.