Add lamb shanks to marinade and toss to coat. Cover bowl with plastic wrap. Transfer to refrigerator and let marinate overnight.
Preheat oven to 450 degrees.
Place carrots, onion, celery, fennel, garlic, and ginger in a roasting pan. Drizzle with olive oil and toss to coat. Remove lamb from marinade and wipe off excess. Season with salt and pepper and add to roasting pan. Transfer to oven and roast, turning once, until well browned, about 20 minutes. Remove from oven and deglaze lamb and vegetables with wine and tomato paste.
Decrease oven temperature to 325 degrees.
Transfer lamb to a large Dutch oven and add enough chicken stock to cover the lamb shanks halfway (you may not need to use all of the chicken stock). Add roasted vegetables, apricots, figs, dates, prunes, currants, almonds, walnuts, pistachios, crushed tomatoes, fennel seeds, coriander seeds, cumin seeds, and chile flakes. Place thyme, parsley, cilantro, and bay leaves in a piece of cheesecloth; tie with kitchen twine to enclose. Add to Dutch oven and cover.
Bring lamb mixture to a simmer over medium-high heat. Immediately transfer to oven and cook until meat is tender and falling off the bone, about 3 hours.
Remove from oven and let cool slightly. Remove lamb shanks and set aside. Remove vegetable mixture and cooking liquid from Dutch-oven and pass through a food mill back into Dutch-oven. Return lamb to Dutch-oven and toss to coat; serve.
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