Heat a small, heavy-bottomed skillet over high heat. Add anise seeds and toast, stirring constantly, until fragrant, about 30 seconds. Remove anise seeds from pan and let cool to room temperature.
In a large bowl, mix together cabbage, carrots, jicama, and jalapeno. Add lime juice, salt, sugar, cilantro, mint, and cooled anise seeds; toss to combine; let stand at least 1 hour, stirring occasionally, before serving. Slaw is best when made up to 3 days in advance and can be stored in an airtight container, refrigerated.